Application on Reinforcement Learning for Diagnosis Based on Medical Image : Part 2

Medical imaging has made a revolution for medical filed, making possible to execute diagnosis without any invasion with perfect accuracy and very fast time. Medical image lead us to broaden our observation capabilities, and allow us to understand biophysical world, by applying new algorithms such as new protocols for manipulation which help to increase accuracy with intervention of artificial intelligence.

From discovery of X-Ray in 1885, medical imaging is the fast way to acquiring information from patient’s health state. During last two decades Significates advances are noticed in computerized medical imaging, two and three dimensions modalities which became more helpful for radiologists.

While in last century, Radiology imaging were the first and unique way to acquisition of images, new modalities are developed include physiological, metabolic state detection, the most know techniques are: Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imagery (MRI), Positron Emission Tomography (TEP) and Ultrasound.

Today imaging medical become an essential task in medical routine, in most cases anomalies can be observed before appear of symptoms and this is a very important point. Each imaging modality has particular organ a tissue to observe, but they are completely and offer and full view for such organ from functional and structural side.

We can divide all modalities into 2 categories: structural or morphological and functional

For the first we found: X-Ray, Ultrasound, MRI, Computed tomography CT

In the second time we have multiple technologies which are used to assess tissues metabolism, like as Scintigraphy, single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imagery (fMRI). in the next section we will talk about each technology.

The X-Ray are the produced by 2 ways : the first one is that a high difference electric in X ray tube between anode an cathode, this late is associated to filament which issued electrons also they will reacted with two ways, first by Bremsstrahlung where the electron is decrease his speed and converted it to energy which is X-Ray, second is Characteristic radiation where the electron emitted by filament remove an electron of nuclei which create gap this will be occupied by the supra electron which give  emitted a radiation outside the nuclei, this is X-RAY

X-Ray are used to be projected to patient body, they transverse targeted area, bones can block these  Ray for that we observe them as light area, in other side soft tissue allow passage of these Rays this appear as dark area in the image.

Ultrasound imaging is the second most popular imaging modality after X-Ray, is estimated that 25% of medical process call Ultrasound Imaging(1), this modality complement other modalities such as MRI and CT. Ultrasound is based on high frequency sound waves and for that they are called Ultrasound, these late waves are used to traverse tissues and produce different echoes categorize each tissue type, however the echoes will be captured by a receiver and send to computer which transform it to screen signal.

Second, Computed Tomography or CT is a imaging technology use X(Rays for reconstruction a 3D image of patient body by capturing images in different angles, first the image is generated by a number of 2D radiographs, then we use an algorithm called Random Transfer. CT offers high contrast between soft tissue and bone, and low contrast among the soft tissue.

Now, we’ll talking about MRI technology which refer to Magnetic Resonance imaging, in this technique we use one of the most popular and important propriety of human body that its composed of about 75% water, so when its placed within a magnetic field the hydrogen nuclei will be excited, however this will make them in supra-energetic state which need to spend this extra-energy under relaxation, this late is depend on such tissue type also we can create images by using this difference. An advantage of MRI is that it not inosinate so there is no any hazard for patient. MRI is so better for soft tissue in particular brain and spinal cords imaging.

18 Comments

  1. Fantastic beat ! I would like to apprentice while you amend
    your web site, how can i subscribe for a weblog site? The account aided me a acceptable deal.

    I have been tiny bit familiar of this your broadcast offered brilliant clear idea

  2. A fascinating discussion is definitely worth comment.
    I do believe that you ought to write more about this topic,
    it may not be a taboo matter but typically folks don’t discuss these
    subjects. To the next! Best wishes!!

  3. Simply wish to say your article is as astonishing. The clearness in your post is simply great and i can assume you are an expert on this subject. Fine with your permission let me to grab your RSS feed to keep updated with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please continue the enjoyable work. Annetta Tedman Coleen

  4. Music is truly amazing in so many ways. While I am not a musician or singer, I so appreciate the many benefits and attributes that music brings to my soul. It truly moves me. Thalia Eddie Oren

  5. Does your blog have a contact page? I’m having a tough time
    locating it but, I’d like to send you an e-mail. I’ve got some creative ideas for your blog you might be interested in hearing.
    Either way, great blog and I look forward to seeing it grow over time.

    Also visit my web page … delta 8 thc for sale

  6. Hi I am so thrilled I found your blog page,
    I really found you by mistake, while I was researching on Google for something else, Anyhow I am here now and would just like
    to say thanks for a tremendous post and a all round interesting blog (I also
    love the theme/design), I don’t have time to go through it
    all at the moment but I have book-marked it and also added
    your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read more, Please do keep up the awesome
    b.

    my blog post :: delta 8 thc for sale

  7. My brother suggested I may like this website. He used to be
    entirely right. This submit truly made my day. You can not consider
    just how a lot time I had spent for this information! Thanks!

    My homepage; delta 8

  8. Do you mind if I quote a couple of your posts as long as I provide credit and sources back to your website?
    My blog site is in the very same area of interest as yours and my users
    would certainly benefit from a lot of the information you present here.
    Please let me know if this ok with you. Thanks a lot!

    Here is my website; buy delta 8

  9. You are so interesting! I do not suppose I have read a single thing like
    that before. So wonderful to find another person with original thoughts on this subject.
    Seriously.. many thanks for starting this up. This website is
    something that is needed on the web, someone with some originality!

    my web blog :: delta 8 thc

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.


*